Amino acid deficiency (methionine, tryptophan, and tyrosine) in the majority of farmed fish (carp, channel catfish and African catfish) is usually manifested in the loss of appetite and slow growth. The lack of lysine and valine cause high mortality as early as at the third week. Methionine and tryptophan deficiency results in the onset of cataract. With tryptophan deficiency, bone and cartilage tissue development is violated, the spine is deformed (lordosis, scoliosis), lymphoid tissue atrophy is observed in salmon. The excess of essential amino acids or a breach in their ratio result in fatty liver. Abnormalities in the ratio of isoleucine and leucine cause liver toxemia and the onset of necrotic foci in the liver in salmon and channel catfish; excess of histidine causes a variety of stomach abnormalities (wall thickening, wall ulceration and necrosis) and inhibits growth.
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